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Chlamydia

What is Chlamydia?

It is a bacterial infection. It is the most common sexually transmitted infection.

How is it spread?

Chlamydia is transmitted by having vaginal, oral or anal sex, even if the man does not ejaculate.

What are the symptoms of Chlamydia?

In women

  • No symptoms in 80%
  • Irregular bleeding or bleeding after sex
  • Purulent vaginal discharge
  • Pain on passing urine
  • Lower abdomen pain

In men

  • No symptoms in 50% of men
  • Pain on passing urine
  • Discharge from the penis
  • Testicular pain or rectal pain

What are the complications?

In women

  • Inability to get pregnant
  • Risk of ectopic pregnancy
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Tubal damage
  • inflammation of the lining of the uterus

In men

  • inflammation of the testicle

How can I test for Chlamydia?

A simple urine test for men and women.

What is the treatment?

Antibiotics-a prescription faxed to a pharmacy of your choice.

Gardnerella

What is Gardnerella?

Gardnerella vaginitis is the most common cause of vaginal odour and discharge. It is caused by a change in the types of bacteria found in the vagina with an increase in vaginal PH.

How is it transmitted?

This is not necessarily caused by sexually activity. However, risk factors that seems to increase the likelihood of this infection include a history of multiple sex partners, a new sexual relationship, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching and the use of an intrauterine device.

What are the symptoms?

50% of women do not have symptoms. In others, it causes a ‘fishy’ vaginal odour and/or yellow or white discharge.

How is it diagnosed?

A urine home test.

How is it treated?

Antibiotics if symptoms occur.

Are there any complications?

It can be associated with recurrent miscarriage and there is an association with premature labour and low birth weight.

Gonorrhoea

What is Gonorrhoea?

This is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium called gonococcus.

How is it spread?

It is passed on through vaginal, anal or oral sex.

What are the symptoms?

In women

  • 1 in 2 develop an increase in vaginal discaharge
  • 1 in 2 develop pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain when passing urine
  • Infection of the rectum or the throat

In men

  • More than 85% will have symptoms within 10 days , most commonly discharge from the penis and pain when passing urine
  • Redness at the end of the penis

What are the complications?

In women

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Premature labour, ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage
  • Abscesses can develop in the bartholin glands in the genital area

In men

  • Inflammation of the testicles
  • Risk of abscess formation in the penile glands

Whats is the diagnosis?

A simple urine test.

What is the treatment for Gonorrhoea?

Antibiotics- a single antibiotic injection and a single antibiotic tablet.

A repeat test after treatment is strongly recommended.

Hepatitis B

What is Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver. It is a potentially life threatening liver infection. It can cause chronic infection and put people at risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.

How is it spread?

It is transmitted through contact with blood and other bodily fluids of an infected person. It is a lot more infectious than HIV.

It is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, particularly unvaccinated men who have sex with men and heterosexual persons who have multiple sex partners.   Transmission of the virus can also occur through sharing needles in those who inject drugs or a needle stick injury in a healthcare setting. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical or dental procedures, through tattooing or the use of razors or similar objects that are contaminated with infected blood. Also, from an infected mother to a child during birth.

What are the symptoms of Hepatitis B?

Most people do not experience any symptoms in the acute phase infection stage. The incubation period is 1-6 months. However, some people experience symptoms lasting several weeks including:

  • Jaundice [ yellowing of the skin]
  • Dark urine
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdomen pain

Is there treatment?

There is no specific treatment. Chronic Hepatitis B infection can be treated with drugs including oral antiviral agents. Treatment can slow the progression of cirrhosis, reduce incidence of liver cancer and improve long term survival.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Hep C is a liver disease caused by the Hep C virus. The virus can cause both acute and chronic infection lasting weeks to a serious life long illness.

 

How is it spread?

It is spread through infected blood

  • injecting drug use through sharing equipment
  • reuse or inadequate sterilisation of medical equipment
  • unscreened blood and blood products

What are the symptoms?

The incubation period for Hep C is 2 weeks to 6 months.80% of people may not have symptoms following initial infection. Those who are acutely symptomatic may have

  • fever
  • fatigue
  • nausea and vomiting
  • abdomen pain
  • dark urine
  • grey stool
  • joint pain
  • jaundice

How do I test for it?

A finger prick blood sample in this home testing kit.

Is there treatment?

Hep C can be treated and possibly cured with antiviral drugs. This treatment is usually for 12 weeks. Hep C does not always require treatment as the immune response in some people will clear the infection.

Herpes Simplex 1&2

What is Herpes simplex 1 & 2?

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by 2 viruses. These viruses are called herpes simplex 1 and herpes simplex 2.

How is it spread?

You can get herpes by vaginal, oral or anal sex with someone who has the disease. It is transmitted by close physical contact.

How will I know I have it?

80% of people do not know they have the virus. A minority will develop a severe outbreak of genital sores usually as one or more painful blisters around the genitals, rectum or mouth. These are usually more severe in females. When this outbreak occurs both males and females can experienceflu like symptoms such as

  • fever
  • body aches
  • swollen glands
  • tingling pain in genital area, buttocks and legs.

Repeat outbreaks of genital herpes are common in the first year of infection. Repeat outbreaks can be shorter and less severe than the first. The infection can stay in your body for the rest of your life, however the number of outbreaks decrease over a period of years.

How is it diagnosed?

A finger prick blood sample can tell you if you have herpes 1 or 2 in your body.

What is the treatment?

A prescription for pain relief and antiviral medication if symptomatic.

HIV

What is HIV?

It stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus weakens a persons immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. No effective cure exists for HIV.

How is it spread?

It is spread through certain body fluids- blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk.

What is AIDS?

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [AIDS] is the most severe stage of HIV infection. People who have AIDS have badly damaged immune systems and get increasing number of severe illnesses. Without treatment people with AIDS may only survive for 3 years.

What are the symptoms if HIV?

These are generally non specific but include a range of common conditions

  • Flu like illness
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Severe fatigue
  • Night sweats
  • Sores or ulcers around your mouth
  • Non itchy rash
  • Weight loss
  • Cough and shortness of breath

How do I test for HIV?

You can use a home HIV test kit which is a finger prick blood sample which is 99% accurate at detecting HIV exposure that may have occurred more than 12 weeks ago and can potentially pick up HIV infection from 4 weeks ago.

If this test is not a clear negative, you will then need to give a serum blood sample to confirm a positive result.

What is the treatment for HIV?

Highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] is the use of at least 3 drugs that suppress HIV replication. These medicines do not cure HIV but instead help people to live longer, healthier lives.

Mycoplasma

What is Mycoplasma?

This is a bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of the urethra, cervix, throat and anus.

How is this spread?

It is transmitted by vaginal, anal and oral sex.

 

What are the symptoms?

It can have a combination of symptoms or you can have no symptoms.

In men

  • burning when passing urine
  • watery discharge from the urinary tract

In women

  • discharge from the urinary tract
  • burning sensation when passing urine
  • pelvic inflammatory diseases
  • bleeding after sex
  • infertility

How is this tested?

A simple urine sample.

What is the treatment?

A prescription for antibiotics.

Syphilis

What is Syphilis?

It is a bacterial infection.

How is it spread?

You can get syphilis through direct contact with a syphilis core during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. These sores can be found on the penis, vagina, and anus, in the rectum or on the lips and in the mouth. Syphilis can also be spread from an infected mother to her unborn baby.

What are the symptoms?

Primary syphilis presents as an ulcer [chancre]. These sores are usually painless, round and firm. They can be single or multiple sores where syphilis has entered the body, 9-90 days after exposure.

Secondary syphilis is within the first 2 years on infection and you may have a rash on your hands or soles of your feet. Other symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Swollen glands
  • Sore throat
  • Patchy hair loss
  • Headaches
  • Weight loss
  • fatigue

Late stage symptoms include:

  • difficulty in coordinating your muscles,
  • numbness
  • dementia
  • angina
  • blindness

How is it tested?

A finger prick blood sample.

Is there treatment to cure it?

Yes, syphilis can be cured with the right antibiotics.

Trichomoniasis

What is Trichomoniasis?

Trichomonas vaginalis [TV] is a sexually transmitted infection by a parasite.

How is it spread?

It is spread from an infected person to an uninfected person during sex. During sex the parasite is transmitted from a penis to a vagina or from a vagina to a penis. It can also be spread from a vagina to a vagina.

What are the signs and symptoms?

70% of infected people do not have any symptoms. When trichomoniasis does cause symptoms, they can range from mild to severe.

In women

  • vaginal discharge can be yellow, thin, frothy
  • vaginal irritation
  • painful sex
  • pain on passing urine

In men

  • itching
  • irritation inside the penis
  • burning after urination or ejaculation
  • discharge from the penis

Are there any complication?

Pregnant women with TV are most likely to have their babies’ early and low birth weight.

How is it diagnosed?

A simple urine test.

What is the treatment?

Antibiotics – a single dose.

Ureaplasma

What is Ureaplasma?

This is a bacterium that can be passed through sexual contact.

What are the symptoms?

It is estimated that a large proportion of sexually active people are infected with ureaplasma without it causing any problems. Where symptoms are present, these include:

  • burning sensation when passing urine
  • urethral irritation
  • unusual vaginal discharge in women
  • urethral discharge in men
  • chronic cystitis or urinary tract infections

How do I test for it?

A simple urine sample.

What is the treatment?

A prescription for antibiotics faxed to a pharmacy of your choice.

 

Choose your test kit

Standard Kit

Self screening test for 2 of the most commonly diagnosed STD’s.

Chlamydia & Gonorrhoea

€60

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Advanced Kit

Self screening test for 6 of the most commonly diagnosed STD’s.

Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea, HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C

€120

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Complete Kit

Self screening test for 12 of the most commonly diagnosed STD’s.

Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea, HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Trichomoniasis, Gardnerella, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Herpes Simplex 1 & 2

€220

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